TMPA Archaeology Exhibit
adapted from an article by Meg Cruse
In July 2002 the Texas Municipal Power Agency (TMPA) assembled a historical exhibit
of materials found at Gibbons Creek and opened this display to the public at the
agency's headquarters in Carlos.
This exhibit was created to document artifacts collected at more than 200 archaeological
sites identified within the boundaries of the mine by the Texas firm, Espey, Huston
and Associates, Inc. (now PBS&J) of Austin. The firm was brought to the mine
prior to mining activities, to conduct environmental and archaeological investigations
to determine what impacts the mine would have on the area's environmental and cultural
These artifacts represent years of habitation of Texas residents. Stone and metal
tools, pottery, plant seeds, and dated glass were among many of the items found
at the sites. Each object, accompanied by the surroundings in which it was found,
built stories for the archeologists. The stories are shared with the public at the
exhibit through narrative boards and display cases. The exhibit is a wonderful interactive
display that not only provides a video presentation, but will be able to maintain
its beauty through the use of UV screens, filtered indoor lights and a security
The oldest artifacts in the exhibit are from the Paleo-Indian period (about 10,000
BC to 7000 BC)--which makes them older than the pyramids in Egypt. The most unique
find for this time frame was a spear tip called a Pelican point, which is not a
common artifact in this part of the state. Dalton points were also found. Common
in northeast Texas, these spear points would have been used to hunt large game animals
that are now extinct, such as the mammoth elephant and giant bison. Other artifacts
in the Paleo-Indian exhibit are stone tools used for scraping hides and for wood
or bone working. These items suggest that early settlers were hunters who may have
followed the migrations of large game animals.
The next period, the Archaic period, which ranged from 7000 BC to AD 100, produced
many more artifacts. The most interesting addition to these artifacts were tools
for grinding and tools for cutting and woodworking. Some stone tools were clearly
used for milling, drilling and punching holes. These types of tools have been found
much more commonly in East Texas. Charred rocks were also found indicating where
food was once cooked.
The third period documented in the exhibit is the Late Prehistoric period that runs
from AD 100 to the time when the first Europeans inhabited Texas. It is clear that
this is the time frame in which bows and arrows were utilized and pottery was created
for every day use. Timber is also on display from the historical Peters Cabin. Charles
Peters was one of the first Texas pioneers. Germany born, Peters came to America
during his childhood, and after growing up in the South, fought in the Civil War
as a Confederate Soldier. Later, Peters settled on the Texas frontier, with no concern
or fear of the Indians that shared the land. Even though it is said that many settlers
had much different experiences with the local Indians, Peters and the Indians co-existed
peacefully without incident.
final contents of the exhibit document recent historical artifacts that are from
a much more recent time period--those of our grandparents and great grandparents.
Farm implements, glass bottles, children's toys and other pieces of American nostalgia
are included in the exhibit to preserve a time not so long ago.
The items collected at the Gibbons Creek location create a snapshot that documents
the vast range of this land's historical journey. As it has been TMPA's honor to
be a part of this history, it is an honor to share this history with the people